Courts were located around the ziggurat
The ancient Sumerians are credited for the invention of government. They were affected politically and economically by it. It was invented to organize labor and officials were appointed to sort out problems and work on construction projects. Because of this newly-organized labor, people could work together to form an economy by building canals and roads that made trading easier. Socially, the people now had something to do, and a way to earn a living. They had also set-up government to make laws. These laws, enforced by courts, were made so the Sumerian people would know what was expected of them.
The ancient Mesopotamia's created a government that was a combination of monarchy and democracy. The kingdoms of Sumer were organized into city-states and the Kings ruled each city-states for the gods. They were assisted by priests, scribes, and nobles. But before 3500 BC priests ruled Sumer. They attended the gods who really ruled.
While Scribes measured land into square units and decided taxes to be paid. They also kept accounts of foreign goods unloaded from ships. Elected officials who served in the Assembly also ruled the people. Even kings had to ask the Assembly for permission to do certain things.
Lawmaking in Sumer was performed by a two-house legislature, who enforced the laws. The Upper House - composed of elders and the Lower House - composed of free male citizens, who were also the soldiers. Sumerian laws were not written down, but people knew what they were and they knew what could happened if you broke the law. The laws clearly stated how you had to behave and what your punishment would be if you did not. The laws that were later written down by the ancient Babylonians were, for the most part, laws first created by the ancient Sumerians.
The Babylonian King Hammurabi made his 'Code' or collection of laws very successful. It was modeled on existing laws, but this was the largest law code assembled. The Code has 282 provisions which dealt with many aspects of life, including family rights, trade, slavery, tariffs, taxes, prices and wages. The Code tells us much about Babylonian society and is inscribed on a stone slab over 6ft high. At the top, the King is shown receiving laws from the Babylonian sun god, Shamash (a.k.a. Sumerian god Enlil). The laws are not the same for rich and poor, but the weak were given some protection against the tyranny of the strong. The Code was not the only law code in Mesopotamia, but the only one written in stone. The code was based on retribution, not justice and varied unfairly between social classes.
You gotta read some of these laws. Some of them are kind-of funny. Like if I went into a bar and got a drink, the law states I then need to be burned to death because I’m a woman. And then it got me wondering, how much has it changed in current Iraq? Is it still in the books that a woman needs to be burned for drinking alcohol?
The octopus is considered the most intelligent invertebrate there is. They also appear to have a good memory. Tales abound of their achievements in aquariums. The Internet is full of videos showing their tricks.
Her tank has now been fortified with tape and clamps. They believe she will need tools if she wants to repeat this performance. Only time will tell. She is known by the visitors to the aquarium to be a gregarious and curious octopus. The aquarium has received suggestions to name the California two-spotted octopus, Flo.
By watching the video, it becomes apparent that an octopus is easily trained.
~In an aquarium in Florida the staff entered early one morning to find the octopus tank empty. As they looked around, they found the octopus in another tank with fish. They already knew this octopus was extremely intelligent because they had to keep toys in her tank. And, they had to change those toys daily or she got bored. As they assessed what might have taken place, they realized the octopus had climbed to the top of her tank through a tiny pipe. She then moved the lid and climbed out. She somehow made it to the floor where she must have slithered to the target tank. Then she climbed up, opened their lid and jumped in. She must have stared at that fish tank over a period of time until she could stand it no longer. It didn't seem to be a case of curiosity as much as one of loneliness. She is a very social creature for a species known to hide out.
~There was another story about an octopus that I can’t seem to find. But one day in an aquarium, a staff member noticed in one of the displays that some of the shell fish had vanished, leaving just their shells behind. After about a week, the staff decided to put up some cameras to see if someone was coming into the aquarium at night. Yet, what they found was the tank across from the shell fish was an octopus who couldn’t stand seeing it’s favorite food just feet from it. So at night, it escaped out of its vent hole, down it’s tank, across the floor, up the other tank, in through the shell fish's vent and into their tank to grad a snack. Then the octopus proceeded back to its own tank before morning so no one was the wiser.
So the next time you visit an aquarium, be sure to visit the octopus tank. It seems quite a personality awaits there to greet you. Octopus Documentary Part 1
You can't get into the Sumerian Religion without telling a little of the Anunnaki history.
These accounts seem to borrow from one to the next to give their own spin on how history occurred. Like the tree of Life, to even the Great Flood.
The best way to determine the accuracy of these stories is to find the earliest writings. Which isn’t the Bible, or even Egypt, but Sumer.
This is may be the oldest surviving source of the Noah's Ark myth and other parallel Middle Eastern Deluge myths. Enki was the Anunnaki leader of the first sons of Anu who came down to Earth, playing an important role in saving humankind from "the Deluge". According to Sumerian mythology, Enki allowed humanity to survive the Deluge designed to kill them. After Enlil and the rest of the Anunnaki, decided that Man would suffer total annihilation, Enki covertly rescued the human man Ziusudra by either instructing him to build some kind of a boat. A tablet describes a huge boat commanded by Sumerian King Ziusudra - the last king listed on the Sumerian king list prior to the deluge. He preserved vegetation and the seed of humankind. When the storm subsided, the god Utu - the sun - came forward and shed light on heaven and earth. King Ziusudra opened a window on the boat and let in the light. He is subsequently recorded as the hero of the Sumerian flood epic.
I am not an expert on the Sumerians but I have an avid interest and read quite a bit on the subject. I find them to be extraordinary. To imagine that before this society, chronologically we were Neanderthals, is amazing. Almost unbelievable. To go from “Uhg, me want food” to arithmetic and mapping the stars, is unbelievable. Sumer is the first recorded society to date, with recorded accounts from that civilization with knowledge you would think would be beyond their grasp. If you looked at today’s society several thousand years from the future, would the future beings viewing our records think that we considered movie stars and rock stars as Gods because of how we idolize some of them? Granted the Sumerians believed their Gods, the Anunnaki, were consciously in control of the elements and nature. They also believed that the Anunnaki actually scientifically created us into the current Homo sapiens.
According to Zecharia Sitchin research on the Sumerians, Nibiru was the home of a technologically advanced human-like extraterrestrial race called the Anunnaki in Sumerian myth, and the Nephilim in Genesis. He wrote that they evolved after Nibiru entered our solar system and first arrived on Earth approximately 450,000 years ago. They were looking for minerals, especially gold, which they found and mined in Africa. Sitchin states that these "gods" were the rank-and-file workers of the colonial expedition to Earth. The God Enki suggested, to relieve the Anunnaki, who had mutinied over their dissatisfaction with their working conditions, that primitive workers (Homo sapiens) be created by genetic engineering as slaves to replace them in the gold mines by crossing extraterrestrial genes with those of Homo erectus.
According to Ancient Alien Theory, the Anunnaki, and other alien groups, came to Earth and seeded the human race in many variations. This research was lead by Zecharai Sitchin and Erich on Daniken. Physical evidence of ancient astronauts is found throughout the planet, leading one to conclude that different races visited here at different periods in Earth's history, or the same aliens return and set up various programs (civilizations) in which they could remain and experience. These would include: the Middle East, Egypt, India, China, Greece, Mesoamerica, and other Ancient Civilizations.
The Sumerian texts are full of interesting tales that I am not sure if they are accurate history or fiction. Yet, from all fiction there is always a grain of truth, and even a small portion of this being true would be astounding. Plus, why would an entire society have the same point of view concerning their Gods, when by all accounts the Sumerians appeared to be a rebellious lot.
The Sumerian religion influenced Mesopotamian mythology as a whole, surviving in the mythologies and religions of the Hurrians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and other culture groups.
Sumerians believed their world was controlled by gods, goddesses, demons, and monsters. Just like Egyptians, Sumerians thought each god or goddess was responsible for one thing, like the rivers and trees, pottery and bread etc. Therefore there were hundreds of gods/goddesses. Also, each Sumerian city was guarded by a god or goddess. There were also temples for them to live in, and people could go there and make an offering, like a sacrificed animal, food, and valuables. Demons were creatures with human bodies and animal heads created by the gods. They could be either evil or good. The good one convinces people to do good, and the bad one persuades people to be bad.
The Anunnaki physical appearance was described to be very large, giant like, with oblong shaped skulls. The writings claimed for them to have supernatural powers (maybe confused with advanced technology) and intelligence making them God like in the eyes of humankind. Plus, they were said to live an extremely long lives.
Sticking with the great flood, an interesting tidbit: If Noah was an actual person and not a generalization, he would have been living for a long time before historical records, being 600 years old at the time of the great deluge detailed in the Holy Bible. Noah is sometimes considered to be the Father of wine, and archaeological evidence suggests wine production started as long as 8,000 years ago. This could be an indication of the time in which he would have lived. Following the genealogy from Adam to Jesus, most theologians place the Flood at around 5,000 years ago (3,000 BC), approximately.
The Anunnaki as a species were very human like with families, in-fighting, child births, they could be killed, and with personality traits of good and bad Gods. It is even recorded of a few of them getting drunk.
Even the Bible has descriptions and stories of giants. Are these giants, the Anunnaki?
The bible which itself states that demonic beings who were banished from heaven for failing to bow before God's greatest creation, man; and who were giants in comparison to us ascended from the sky. It then says they interbred with females to create a hybrid bloodline. God eventually destroyed all these ungodly beings although this lays the case that these beings have around since the beginning of time and are not some mysterious race from another planet. Some believe these demonic beings are working in opposition to God and are in fact Demons in today's world. In almost all the exorcism cases there is a little known fact that the victim of demonic possession speaks typically in ancient Sumerian, unlike many Hollywood movies would make you believe they speak Latin even though the language did not exist before Christianity.
In Sumerian Mythology of the Anunnaki were a pantheon of good and evil Gods and Goddesses who came to Earth to create the human race. Below is a link to a site examining the roles of each God and Goddess. Sumerians said one year on planet Nibiru, a sar, was equivalent in time to 3,600 Earth years. Anunnaki lifespans were 120 sars which is 120 x 3,600 or 432,000 years. According to the King List - 120 sars had passed from the time the Anunnaki arrived on Earth to the time of the Great Flood.
The Tree of Life and serpent is a reoccurring theme throughout many religions. It appears to have started with the Sumerians.
helix snake. More specifically, the Caduceus emblem (to the right). And the wings represent the Anunnaki, Ahura Madza, "Overseer of Earth", a Higher Extraterrestrial Intelligence who is also present in the picture above. This symbol has become accepted as the worldwide medical emblem for healing and medicine, which also resembles the Tree of Life. Coincidence?
If you are interested in expanding your mind, I suggest investigating this civilization. It will make you raise your eyebrows frequently.
Good detailed site about Sumerians and their Gods
More info on the Sumerians
Zecharia Sitchin, Twelfth Planet
Erich Von Däniken, Chariots of the Gods
Dr. J. Allen Hynek
There is just so much more to come on the Sumerians and Anunnaki, so stand by...
Mint Chip Ice cream, Krispy Kreme donuts, homemade pizza, pralines, Chinese chicken salad...mmmmm!